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Production Capitalism vs. Financial Capitalism - Symbiosis and Parasitism. An Evolutionary Perspective.

A workshop-conference to be held in Oslo, September 3-4, 1998.

Prolegomenon and Bibliography.

Erik S. Reinert & Arno Mong Daastøl

Published as working paper by SUM, 1999.

Organised by Norsk Investorforum, Oslo & SUM-
Centre for Development and Environment, University of Oslo.

Financial issues are far from being at the core of evolutionary economics. The evolutionary focus has been on the production of goods and services (on what Schumpeter called the Güterwelt), not on money. This has, no doubt, been the right emphasis, particularly as much of our economic policy - both in the First and in the Third World - is still based on what Schumpeter called ‘the pedestrian view that it is capital per se which propels the capitalist engine.’ The view of evolutionary economics on finance has tended to be in line with what the same author, Schumpeter, saw as one conclusion from Antonio Serra’s 1613 book: ‘If the economic process as a whole functions properly, the monetary element will take care of itself and not require any specific therapy.’ However, in the context of the late 1990’s, the financial system seems to intrude into the economic process in a way that is qualitatively different from before. This, we feel, raises the need to discuss the relationship between evolutionary economics and finance.

The conference is dedicated to the relationship between production capitalism and financial capitalism - between the sphere of goods and the sphere of money, between innovation and finance - in all its aspects; e.g. historical, theoretical, technological, or in terms of its effect on the distribution of income or on the clustering of innovations; within nations or internationally. This discussion is an old one, but of renewed relevance.

The relationship between production capitalism and financial capitalism is reflected in the old German distinction between ‘schaffendes Kapital’ (creative capital) and ‘raffendes Kapital’ (grabbing capital). Hilferding’s Finanzkapital from 1912 is a classic in this field. This same issue was also much discussed in 19th Century United States, when foreign (i.e. English) capital tended to be 'bad' capital and domestic capital was 'good' capital. South East Asians today will probable share this view on the roles of foreign vs. domestic capital. In his Treatise on Money (1931) Keynes sees depressions as arising when money is shifted from ‘industrial circulation’ into the ‘financial circulation’. This is again an observation that seems to fit the present situation as well. A few years later, in 1936, Harold Macmillan complained about his own party being dominated by Casino Capitalism. Today a similar distinction is found in Bill Lazonick’s ‘wealth creation’ vs. ‘wealth extraction.’ At the same time, the English Telegraph recently estimated the market for financial derivatives around twice the world GNP in size. Other estimates are even higher. Perhaps this is a good time to reread Keynes.

The aim of the conference is to contribute to public policy by attempting to answer some fundamental questions regarding the relationship between financial capitalism and production capitalism:

  1. What can theory and history contribute in terms of an operational delimitation between ‘Production Capitalism’ and ‘Financial Capitalism’?
  2. What have been the most efficient policy measures – in tax policy, industrial policy or otherwise - in channelling financial flows into ‘industrial circulation’ (of course also including services) rather than into ‘financial circulation’?
  3. To what extent is the present Asian crisis a 'typical' bubble? (The term bubble was coined during the financial crisis in 1720, which was the first truly international financial crisis.) What is new about today's situation, and what are recurrent elements of all financial crises through the ages?
  4. What are the relationships between discontinuities in technological change – systemic paradigm shifts – and financial crisis? Do financial bubbles tend to appear at a similar point in the technological trajectory? If so, what are the mechanisms at work?
  5. How do financial cracks change the distribution of income and wealth – nationally and internationally? The 1929 crack provides and interesting case on how different sectors are affected in very different ways. In the United States, industrial labour kept their wages, and the crisis was taken out in terms of unemployment. As a result labour's share of GNP actually rose in the US during the depression, whereas in agriculture the price and wage level fell by around 50%. During recent Latin American crises whole national wage levels behave more like the US agricultural sector than like the US manufacturing sector during The Great Depression. In many nations, the financial adjustment policies have lead to a radical redistribution of GNP away from labour and the self-employed towards profits and the financial sector. In the 1930's labour's share of GNP was around 70 % in the US. In Peru in 1996 profits and the financial sector amounted to about 53 % of GNP. What can be learned from the US experience in terms of protecting real wages during a financial crisis?
Capitalism is, of course, a name for our whole economic system. From the standpoint (of one branch) of evolutionary economics, it could be considered a misnomer. The name does seem to confirm the already quoted ‘pedestrian view’ that capital per se is at the core of the system. The term ‘capitalism’ was first used by the enemies of the system - by German socialists - as a derogatory term. Was the term chosen as a protest against financial speculation? In the spirit of evolutionary economics, a more fitting term would perhaps have been idea-ism: a system which is driven by human ideas and human will, based on conscious rationality, on intuition, perceptiveness, and leadership. The demand for capital is created by these innovative ideas and this human will. Without new ideas, in a state of equilibrium, there would - as Schumpeter pointed out - not be any demand for capital (beyond that covered by depreciation). Capital would have no value and pay no interest. Ideas, then, must come first in order to give capital its value. Thus, the term idea-ism would seem to take priority over capital-ism.

There are times in the history of economics when the profession has attempted to look through ‘the veil of money’ (the title of Pigou’s 1949 book) to capture the real economic forces. Before WW I metaphors like ‘money is a wrapper in which goods come to you’ or ‘money is the garment draped around the body of economic life’ were common. First after the violent disturbances in prices and exchange rates following WW I and then again during the depression of the 1930’s, money - the passive veil - ‘took on the appearance of an active and evil genius’ (Pigou). ‘Money, after being little or nothing, was now everything.’ Although during WW II emphasis was on the real world of equipment, organisation and production, the last 50 years of abstract and formal ‘neo-classical synthesis’ in economics has again covered the world of ideas, leadership, intuition, knowledge and human will in a fairly impenetrable ‘veil of money’. How can the real forces be unveiled and understood to prevent money from again becoming ‘an active and evil genius’ which causes the real economy to collapse?

Production capitalism depends on a working financial system, and clearly innovation in finance often accompany innovations of products and processes. There is, then, often a healthy symbiosis between the worlds of production and finance. However, at certain points in history, this relationship seems to take on a parasitic quality: the financial sector, as compared to the real economy, enters a stage of explosive and disproportionate growth and - as this bubble later bursts - the financial sector severely reduces the size and virility of its ‘host’, i.e. of the real economy (the production of goods and non-financial services). In the serious cases, the national standards of living collapse simultaneously with the collapse of the financial sector. In the United States GNP/capita did not reach its 1928 level again until the middle of WW II.

In the United States, probably more money has been made through the appreciation of real estate than in any other way. What are the long-term consequences if an increasing percentage of savings and wealth, as it now seems, is used to inflate the prices of already existing assets - real estate and stocks - instead of to create new production and innovation? On the other hand, access to production credit is an important problem for the poor in the Third World. This has given rise to microenterprise finance among the poor as a business and as an incipient field of academic inquiry that will be covered at the conference.

As a result of the tendency towards savings being used to prop up the value of already existing assets, do we need a different theory of saving? Ragnar Frisch contributed claimed that ‘saving’ from the point of view of a nation was so different from private savings that a new and different term ought to be invented. ‘A nation’, said Frisch, ‘can only save through arrangements in the productive sphere.’ This would open up for a differentiation between two kinds of savings and capital accumulation - one adding to the ‘real world’ of goods and services, the other just inflating the value of already existing assets. A most important issue is this: What can be learned from previous efforts aiming at taxing financial operations leading towards bubbles, while sheltering productive investment. Is the Tobin tax one answer to our problems? What, if anything, can we learn from the different schemes of the 1930’s which attempted to force savings into productive schemes only, like e.g. Silvio Gesell’s ‘stamped money’ which decreased in value if not productively invested? Like theories of trade, theories of banking seem to lend themselves to an analysis contrasting the Continental (German) approach and the English approach. This contrast in approach between English and Continental theories also applies to 'the social question' which seems to recur - in slightly different versions - with every financial crisis.

Financial bubbles seem to appear in historical periods that are characterised by a zeitgeist giving priority to monetary goals above goals in the real economy; in periods when the tail (the monetary economy) is allowed to wag the dog (the real economy). One example: In the UK after WW I, it was decided to put the pound back on pre-war parity with the dollar. In order to achieve this, UK wages were deliberately forced down in an attempt to make wages match the deflated level of prices. This move caused Keynes for the first time to question the sanity of economic theory, and made him fire the first shot, in 1922, of what was to become the Keynesian Revolution. Today - in order to introduce a common currency - the European Community has set a completely arbitrary figure of 3% budget deficit for nations to qualify. The economies ruled by old-fashioned Latin American dictators – like Stroessner and Duvalier – would have been the first to qualify for the criteria for the European common currency. Just like after WW I in the UK, we seem not to mind adjusting people’s standard of living downwards in order to achieve a monetary goal which has been chosen in a completely arbitrarily manner. The fact that the economy is in the middle of a technological revolution which creates a strong deflationary tendency, makes a policy fundamentally based on the fear of inflation all the more questionable.

The relationship between money and production also raises important philosophical and historical - even anthropological - issues. To German speakers there are, as always, treasures to be rediscovered in the almost forgotten German economic tradition. What did Roscher, Schmoller and Sombart have to say about this problem? Georg Friedrich Knapp and Karl Elster (Die Seele des Geldes - ‘The Soul of Money’, 1920) combine economic theory and monetary theory, finance, law, and philosophical/theoretical issues with political science. (‘Das Geld ist ein Geschöpf der Rechtsordnung’). Schumpeter also contributed to this debate in 1917 with a paper called ‘Das Sozialprodukt und die Rechenpfennige’ and in his book Das Wesen des Geldes (‘The Nature of Money’), written in the late 1920’s, but only published in 1970. Schumpeter here discusses the relationship between the monetary economy and the real economy - between the sphere of money (Geldgrössen und monetäre Vorgänge) and the sphere of goods and services (Güterwelt). His theoretical approach here is very much in line with Schmoller’s - with the holistic tradition of the German historical school.

The history of finance and production goes back to the Codes of Hammurabi in ancient Mesopotamia, where sporadic debt cancellation was an institutionalised mechanism for preventing an increasing concentration of land into a few hands. In modern times there is plenty of literature pointing to financial bubbles and their follies. The famous Dutch tulip mania of 1636-1637 is well documented. Often already the titles of the contemporary books say much: In 1688 a book appeared describing the Amsterdam stock exchange, which was then the world’s leading financial centre. The book, entitled ‘Confusion de Confusiones’, was written in Spanish by a Portuguese Jew, Joseph de la Vega, and published in Amsterdam. In 1720 - after the South Sea Bubble in England and the Mississippi Bubble in France - appeared, among many others on the subject, a large and extravagant book with many plates, under the title ‘The Great Mirror of Folly.’ An important 19th Century contribution to this literature - ‘Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds’ by Charles Mackay - appeared in 1841, and was republished in 1980.

The crisis of 1929 was not the last financial crisis which brought down the real economy with it. There are many worrisome signs which point to the need for a better understanding between the sphere of money and the sphere of real goods and services. The standard of living of the average Mexican fell drastically as the result of a financial collapse, the ‘tequilazo’. Capitalism came to Albania in the form of a financial pyramid game, which no one seemingly tried to stop, bringing ruin to a nation which already was the poorest country of Europe by far. The official figures show that the ‘real economy’ in Russia (GNP/capita) has been more than halved since the fall of the Berlin wall, accompanied by a measurable fall in life expectancy. Real wages in Lima, Peru have been reduced by 60 % since 1983. Income distribution in the industrialised world is worsening almost everywhere. Schumpeter’s ‘creative destruction’ also takes on a new meaning – one of financial creativity combined with the destruction of real wealth. One example are buyouts aimed at dismembering assets, running down plant and equipment, ‘dressing up’ earnings; all in the expectation that stock markets will continue to rise so that the assets again can be unloaded.

The relationship between production capitalism and financial capitalism through history can be seen as one of ebbs and flows, of periods of industrial capitalism maturing into financial capitalism, at one point causing a financial crack which prompts the creation of a more restrictive system aimed at reconstructing the 'real' economy, thus starting the cycle all over again. The high tides of financial crises are accompanied by a similar tidal wave of literature. The first truly international financial crash in 1720 caused the production of economic books to increase by a factor of 10 in one year. No doubt the Asian crisis will produce a similar tidal wave. The aim of this workshop-conference is to maximise the learning effects from previous financial crises, minimising the number of wheels that have to be reinvented.

Production Capitalism and Financial Capitalism: Symbiosis or Parasitism ? A Bibliography.

Compiled by Arno Mong Daastøl on behalf of Norsk Investorforum and SUM - Centre for Development and the Environment, University of Oslo.





















2) NEW MONETARY SYSTEM MOVEMENTS (1920-1940, in particular): *






Asterisks mark books that are especially recommended.


Compiling a bibliography of the relationship between production capitalism and financial capitalism - on how to divert investment from speculation to production - is a complex task. The problem is related to a multitude of other questions of larger or smaller nature. In the more narrow sense of economics it is related to not only finance and manufacturing but also to theories of business cycles, of investment, taxation, growth, stage theories, planning, public goods, infrastructure, value, credit (-creation), debt, rent, money, risk, stability, international banking, globalisation, protection, international politics, power, currency policy, international seniorage, balance of trade, etc. Financial regulations in periods of war are particularly interesting in this regard, since in times of war these regulations tend to focus intensely on production. Finance has often been seen as the ultimate instrument of power in periods both of war and of peace.
Although any definition is subjective, we suggest the following definition of speculation: Speculation is selling and buying for profits detached from real production. This contrasts to the hedging deals in currency trade as a part of a transaction of real products and services.

However, speculation is also a highly essential part of almost any economic activity related to trade. Since trade is essential for every economic system including barter based economic systems, speculation is essential for economic activity in general. Speculation in its positive aspects is an activity that potentially makes the economic system more efficient. By comparing prices and acting accordingly a speculator may introduce competition into a system of rigid or local prices. Speculation will thereby act in parallell with communication, levelling out price differentials. Potentially therefore, speculation may make the economic system far more efficient. Nevertheless, the basis of wealth will still be production. Without production there will be nothing to speculate from or about. Without speculation there will most certainly still be production, although less efficient: more rigid. Speculation is therefore secondary to production.

Speculation and in fact the whole financial system is ideally a lubricator of the economic system of which production is the engine itself. In any engine the amount of lubricator must be closely monitored and adjusted to the size and other aspects of the engine. So too in economics. Metaphorically speaking, if the amount of lubricator becomes excessive, the engine will "drown" – in oil or whatever lubricator. If speculation takes on too large relative proportions the economic system will become too "fluid" – to continue our metaphor - or with a more commonly used term "unstable". Such instability may interfere with the long-term stability that production is dependent upon. Therefore, it may be beneficial for the economic system at large to curb the amount of financial fluidity or efficiency. This may be done in many ways too complex to be dug into in this introduction. But in essence, we must choose instruments so that the economic system performs less rigidly without becoming too fluid.

Under financial capitalism, finance regulates itself and national authorities are more prone to follow the dictates of the financial interests; bankers, fund managers etc. Under industrial capitalism, finance is under the dictates of national political authorities, democratically elected or not, through regulations of various kinds. On the theoretical level this regulation blocks the efficiency of the financial system itself. However, in real terms successful regulations may increase the efficiency of the total socio-economic system since the efficiency of production is increased by directing capital away from short term financial investments towards long term investments in productive assets. In other words, regulation may push investments away from pure and sterile financial investments or consumption and into long term "real" productive investments in activities related to production, communication, infrastructure, research, education, and health. From the standpoint of political economy or "nationalist economics" the former type would represent zero-sum investments whereas the latter would represent positive sum investments. This problem is an old one. In order to rescue the Roman Empire from moral decay and physical deterioration, Caesar and Augustus severely restricted speculation, interest and the activities of finance in general, through waves of political reforms, in the 1st Century BC and AD. Louis XI and Henry VII were to follow their example 14 Centuries later, and F.D.Roosevelt another 5 Centuries after that. Today the Asian crisis again raises these same questions.


The classification of literature below is intended to point out important literature in the field concerningthe problem of diverting investment from speculation to production, as well as to establish a systematic perspective referring to historical periods. As noted, the categories "financial-" and "industrial capitalism" are terms that refer to how strong financial affairs are regulated by national political authorities. Using time as the classification criterion therefore points to the changing character of this debate through the past centuries.

The first category is split chronologically in order highlight the fluctuations in the production of literature. The delineation of periods is based on the dominating trend within the global financial system.

The second major category, "new monetary system movements", could largely be grouped into the chronological section 1918-1945 but constitutes a tradition which stands out by itself and breaks this chronological categorisation. We believe a better perspective of this tradition is gained by separating this tradition from the rest of the literature. The reason is that on several points these movements converge. Not only do they all intend to solve the post WW I economic crisis of instability, unemployment and social misery and strife. They do also propose more or less similar solutions to this prolonged crisis. It turns out that the most famous of these reformers, J.M.Keynes, was more the visible surface of a great wave than the originator of the wave itself. The reformers saw the problem as primarily connected to the monetary system, concerning in particular credit. The titles of three books are revealing of the general intent of the general movement: Robert Eisler’s Stable Money (1932), Brynjolf Bjørseth’s Distribute or Destroy (1934) and Major Douglas’ The Monopoly of Credit (1931). The depression was seen as a kind of constipation of the economy caused by a lack of proper circulation of credit and money as lubricants in the economic machinery. The solution was seen as a politically administrated distribution of these lubricants to the public in general. The differences between the various reformers reflect the different suggestions of how to carry this out in practice.


For practical purposes the literature is classified into different language groups. The subsection Scandinavia is a reflection of the ethnocentricity of this author. The classification into languages is, of course, also a classification in terms of cultural areas. In particular the European continental nations have a different more nationalistic tendency (favouring political control), whereas the Anglo-Saxon countries have a more market-oriented policy (favouring banking control). The latter is the normal and accepted view today. However - from an historical point of view - this is a fairly recent phenomenon, indeed a post WW II and even a post 1970s phenomenon. In particular, the United States followed a much more nationalist policy during periods of the 19th Century and in the 1931-1963 era. This goes for Britain as well in several periods, the last being the partly successful attempt to revive mercantilism a Century ago and to some degree the Labour dominated post-WW II period.


Chronologically, important watersheds in this Century are 1931 and 1971. Before 1931, we find a system dominated by financial capitalism but with important islands of industrial capitalism, for instance in the US, Germany, Russia, and Japan. The years 1931 to 1971 are characterised a period of industrial capitalism, starting with New Deal in the US and ending with the downfall of the Bretton Woods system.

The year 1918 is also chosen as a dividing line since this year to changes the nature of some of the islands of industrial capitalism: Russia, and Germany. Whereas the typical credit policy of production capitalism lost weight in the USA with the assassination of President McKinley in 1901, Japan kept following this policy practically to this day, or perhaps until the late 1980s. The period 1918-1931 is characterised as a period of financial capitalism with an intense debate around the question of the very structure of the financial system itself. Since this debate does not stop in 1931 but continues until WW II, the end of the category is for practical reasons chosen in 1945.

The years 1931-1971 were a period of industrial capitalism under various political regimes. The literature in the period 1931-1940 (1945), however, continues the debate from the preceding years and it therefore convenient to group these sub-periods together.

Literature in the period 1945-1971 is generally dominated by a discussion within the frames of the Bretton Woods system. This focused on the necessity of regulation based on the experience with unregulated markets before the crash of 1929 and the devastating consequences to real production and consumption as well as to international peace.
Increasingly, however, the urge to liberalise markets was to make its way. Internationally this was brought about by actions of the French and British governments, in particular. This led to the establishment of offshore dollar markets outside national control during the 1960s. The downfall of Bretton Woods in 1971 was only the most visible sign of the increased focus on liberalisation. As the period comes closer to the time of writing (1998), the principles of financial capitalism are increasing their influence. Financial capitalism is again on top. Concerning the literature, however, 1982 is chosen as a more appropriate dividing line since the effects of the new international regime took time to manifest themselves. Accordingly, neither did the literature react instantly. A better delineation of categories is reached with the Peso-crisis in Mexico in 1982, since this also more closely corresponds to the first effects of the free-trade, free-capital flow policy of the Thatcher and Reagan revolutions.
What is particularly striking about the literature is, firstly, the great flood of literature on monetary and financial issues in the period between the world wars, between 1918 and 1935, in particular. Secondly, what is striking is the increasing amount of literature after the debt crisis hit Mexico in 1982 and again after Black October in Wall Street in 1987, Tokyo early 1990s, Mexico 1994, Barings, Schneider, Orange County, Credit Lyonnais etc., all of the early 1990s. The recent 1997-1998 Southeast Asian crisis - in particular in Thailand, Korea, the Philippines, and Malaysia - is sure to leave the same marks in any list of literature on financial and monetary issues. This is a repetition of the flow of literature after any such event throughout history such as the (more or less international) financial crises in 241 BC, 50 BC, 1345 AD, 1637, 1720, 1858, 1873, 1890, 1907,1924,1929 1958, 1973 etc.





    Early financial literature can be found in the printed catalogues of The Kress Library at Harvard Business School (4 volumes) and of the Goldsmiths Library at the University of London (4 volumes). Both libraries contain economic literature published before 1850. The entries are chronological, and financial literature is listed annually under that heading.

    (.?.) (1802). The new pocket Hoyle, containing the games of whist, quadrille…. and speculation: accurately displaying the rules and practice, as admitted and established by the first players in the Kingdom. – London: Wynne & Scholey, Voortitel: Hoyle’s games of whist… & speculation.

    (.?.). (1822). A letter to Lord Liverpool, on the fallacy of considering the late and present extensive shipments of British-manufactured goods as indicative of any thing else than a spirit of speculation in our merchants, which will speedily produce ruin to our manufacturers, London: Whittaker

    (.?.). (1825). Copy of Bubble Act, 6 Geo. I. C. 18: notes relating to praemunire: draft bill proposed to be introduced by Mr. Peter Moore for the amendment of the Bubble Act, and for the prevention of frauds in the establishment of joint stock Companies, [London]: Wilks & Verbeke

    (.?.). (1885). Circulating capital: being an inquiry into the fundamental laws of money / an essay by an East India merchant. – London: Paul, Trench

    (.?.). (1913). Speculation on the New York Stock Exchange, September, 1904-March, 1907, Algernon Ashburner Osborne. New York: Columbia University Press, (Studies in history, economics, and public law of Columbia University, vol. 56, no. 1; whole no. 137)

    Ainsworth, William Harrison. (1868). The south-sea bubble: a tale of the year 1720 Copyright ed. – Leipzig: Tauchnitz, (ollection of British authors, vol. 989-990)

    Alvord, Clarence Walworth. (1917). The Mississippi Valley in British politics: a study of the trade, land speculation, and experiments in imperialism culminating in the American Revolution. – Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark company

    Andreades, A. (1909). History of the Bank of England, London: P.S.King and Son

    Angell, Norman. (1912). The money game: how to play it: a new instrument of economic education, London [etc.]: Dent

    Ashburton, Lord. (1847). The financial and commercial crisis considered, 4th ed. London: John Murray

    Ashley, William James. (1903). The Tariff problem, London: P.S.King

    Ashley, William James. (1912). Gold and prices, London

    Atkey, Bertram. (1908). Easy money: the genuine book of Henry Mitch, his diligent search for other folk’s wealth, and his urgent fear of the feminine, illustrated by G. L. Stampa. – London: Grant Richards Listed as 1st edition by bookseller.

    Attfield, J.B. (1893). English and Foreign Banks, London

    Bagehot, Walter. (). A practical plan for assimilating the English and American money as a step towards a universal money,

    * Bagehot, Walter. (1873). Lombard Street: a description of the money market, New and cheaper ed., London: Kegan Paul, Trench. Trübner & Co.1896, New ed. With an introd. By Hartley Withers, London, 1910

    Bagehot, Walter. (1875). A New Standard of Value, The Economist, November 20, 1875, reprinted in the Economic Journal, volume 2 (1892)

    Bastable, Charles Francis… [et al.]. (19XX). The money problems of the world: course of reading on money exchange and finance – London [etc.]: Encyclopaedia Britannica, (The Britannica Home University, first series 2)

    Beccaria, M.C. (). A Discourse on Public Economy and Commerce, by the Marquis Caesar Beccaria Bonesaria

    Bell. (1840). The philosophy of joint stock banking, London

    Botero, Giovanni. (1606). A Treatise Concerning The Causes of the Magnificency and Greatness of Cities, Divided into three books by Sig. Giovanni Botero in the Italian Tongue, now done into English by Robert Peterson

    Bowen, Francis. (1870). American Political Economy,

    Brace, H.H. (1913). Valuation of organized speculation, Boston [etc.]

    Bryce, Viscount James. (1893). The American Commonwealth, NewYork: Macmillan

    Carey, Henry Charles. (1837). Principles of Political Economy, Philadelphia Penn.:Carey, Lea & Blanchard

    * Carey, Henry Charles. (1838). The Credit System of France, Great Britain and the United States, Philadelphia Penn. Carey, Lea & Blanchard

    Carey, Henry Charles. (1848). The Past, the Present, and the Future, London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longman’s (MU EAC 583)

    Carey, Henry Charles. (1851). Harmony of Interests. Agricultural, Manufacturing & Commercial, 1851, Augustus M. Kelley Publishers, New York 1967

    Carey, Henry Charles. (1858-59). Principles of Social Science, 3 vols., Lipincott, Phil. (se Schumpeter s.516)

    * Carey, Henry C. (1864). Financial crisis: their causes and effects, Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird

    Child, Josiah. (1668). Brief Observations Concerning Trade and Interest of Money, London, Printed for Elizabeth Calvert at the Black-spread Eagle in Barbican, and Henry Mortlock at the Sign of the White-Heart in Westminster Hall City Man, a. (see: Meason, Malcolm R.L)

    Clare, George. (1900). A Money Market Primer, 2.ed., London

    Conant, C.A. (1905). The principles of money and banking, New York [etc.]: Harper

    Conway Jr., Thomas, in collab. With Albert W. Atwood. (1913). Investment and speculation: a description of the modern money market and analysis of the factors determining the value of securities, [New ed.]. – New York: Alexander Hamilton Institute, 1.ed. (1911) verscheen als: Modern business, VII.

    Cortelyou, Geo. B. et al.. (1908). Lessons of the financial crisis, Philadelphia: The annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, American Academy of Political and Social Science, ISSN 0002-7162, Vol. 31, 2

    Crump, Arthur. (1901). The theory of stock speculation, ed. By S.A. Nelson. Burlington, VT: Fraser, cop.1983. Reprint. Originally published: New York: Nelson, (Nelson’s Wall Street library, vol.3). ISBN 0-87034-068-9

    Cunningham, Audrey. (1910). British credit in the last Napoleonic war, with an appendix containing a reprint of Des finances de l’Angleterre by H. Lasalle. – Cambridge: University press (Girton college studies no. 11)

    Cunningham, William. (1891). The use and the abuse of money, London:University extension manuals

    Cunningham, William. (1905). The Rise and Decline of the Free Trade Movement, Cambridge

    Cunningham, William. (1909). The moral witness of the church on the investment of money and the use of wealth: an open letter addressed to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, President of the Convocation of the Province of Canterbury, Cambridge: University Press Easton. (1896). Banks and Banking, London

    Easton. (1900). The Works of a Bank, London

    Emery, Henry Crosby. (1896). Speculation on the Stock and Produce Exchanges of the United States, New York, (Studies in history, economics and public law / Columbia University. Faculty of Political Science, vol. 7, nr. 2)

    Evans, D. Morier. (1864). Speculative notes and notes on speculation, ideal and real, London Fawcett, Henry. (1863). Manual of Political Economy, London

    Fisher, E.D. (1918). After war credit: an outlook, Detroit

    Fisher, Irving (1914). Why is the dollar shrinking?

    Fowler, William. (1866). The crisis of 1866: a financial essay, London: Longmans, Green

    Gervaise, Isaac. (1720). The System or Theory of the Trade of the World. Treating Of the different Kinds of Value Of the Ballances of Trade Of Exchange Of Manufactures Of Companies And shewing the Pernicious Consequences of Credit, and that it destroys the Purpose of National Trade, London: Printed by H. Woodfall; and Sold by J. Roberts, near the Oxford-Arms in Warwick-Lane MDCCXX (Price Sixpence)

    Giffen, Robert. (1880-1890). Essays in Finance, 1st ser. London 1880, 2nd ser. London 1890

    Giffen, Robert. (1904). Economic Inquiries and Studies, 2 vols., London

    Gibbons, J.S.. (1858). The banks of New-York: their dealers, the clearing house, and the panic of 1857, with a financial chart, ill. By Herrick. – New York: D. Appleton & Co

    Gilbert. (1856). A practical treatise on banking, I-II, 6.ed.,

    Gilbert. (1871). Principles and practice of banking, I-II, 7.ed., London

    Hamilton, Alexander. (1791). The Reports of Alexander Hamilton, I-IV, edited by E.Cooke, New York: The University Library, Harper & Row, 1964, Part I: Report Relative to a Provision for Support of Public Credit, Jamuary 1790, Part II: The Second Report of the Further Provision Necessary for Establishing Public Credit (Report on a National Bank), December 13, 1790, Part III: Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank, February 23, 1791, Part IV: Report on Manufactures, December 5, 1791

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Previous Dissertation Aarhus. English summary. ISBN 87-574-3970-2

Vermnes, Thomas: Frihandel er en fare for jordas miljø. Intervju med Trygve Haavelmo. Klassekampen


The classics in this field are, in particular (in alphabetical order), Bertram Dybvad Brochmann (N), Clifford Hugh Douglas (1879-1952) (GB), Robert Eisler (AU), Silvio Gesell (B), Arthur Kitson (GB), Howard Scott (US), Fredrick Soddy (GB) and Rudolf Steiner (D). Chronologically, Arthur Kitson, Silvio Gesell and Strautenrauch would have to be put first.

Other influencial persons are:

Hollis, Christopher (GB), 1902-1977.

A thorough bibliography on the Technocracy movement can be found in Akin, William E. (1977) below.


Many historical articles on Technocracy can be found in William E. Akin’s book.

(.?.). (1920). Credit-power and democracy: with a draft scheme for the mining industry. London: Cecil Palmer


W. (1925). Real wealth and financial poverty: a study of the present financial system as a monopoly of

money, and its relation to productive industry, social poverty, and economic war, from the point of view of

        the Douglas credit analysis, London
Adamson, Martha  and Raymond A. Moore. (1934).  Technocracy:Some Questions Answered, New York: 
        Technocracy Inc.
* Akin, William E. (1977). Technocracy and the American dream: the technocrat movement, 1900-1941,

Berkeley: University of California Press

All American Technology Society. (1933). Manless Machnies and Workless Man, Chicago: All American

Technology Society

Allen, Robert C. & Gideon Rosenbluth. (1986). Restraining the economy: social credit, economic policies for

B. C. in the eighties, Vancouver: New Star Books

Arkright, Frank. (1933). The ABC of technocracy based on authorized material, New York: Harper

Baker, Charles. (1932. Pathways Back to Prosperity, New York: Funk ans Wagnalls

Barr, John J. (1974). The dynasty: the rise and fall of social credit in Alberta, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart

Beard, Charles A. (1930). The American Leviathan: The Republic in the Machine Age, New York: Macmillan

Beard, Charles A. (1932). America Faces the Future, Bosotn: Houghton Mifflin

Bell, Edward Allan. (1993). Social classes and Social Credit in Alberta, foreword by Maurice Pinard,

        Montreal ; Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press
Blanshard, Paul. (1933). Technocracy and Socialism, New York: League for Industrial Democracy

Boudreau, Joseph A. (.1975). Alberta, Aberhart, and Social Credit, Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of


Brandon, Joseph. (1933). Technocracy or Democracy: Which Shall Govrn Our Industries, Hollis, NY:


Brochmann, Bertram Dybvad. (1953). World economy problems in the light of modern psychology. New

Orientation. New Acknowledgement. New Life's Program. To the Universal Holy Realm Congress, Paris,

Dec. 1953, Bergen

Burnham, James. (1941). The Managerial Revolution, New York: John Day

Chaplin,Ralph. (1948). The Rough-and-Tumble of an American Radical, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Chase, Stuart. (1925). The tragedy of waste, New York: Macmillan, reprint 1930

Chase, Stuart. (1930). Men and machines, illustrated by W.T. Murch. – New York: MacMillan, 1930

Chase, Stuart. (1931). And F.J. Schlink, Your money’s worth: a study in the waste of the consumer’s dollar, New

York: Macmillan

Chase, Stuart. (1931). Out of the depression and after a prophecy, New York: The John Day Company

* Chase, Stuart. (1932). A new deal, New York : Macmillan, reprints

Chase, Stuart. (1933). Technocracy: An Interpretation, New Yrok: John Day

Chase, Stuart. (1933). Technocratie: het probleem der machinale productie, Amersfoort: Valkhoff

* Chase, Stuart. (1934). The economy of abundance, New York: Macmillan

Chase, Stuart. (1936). Rich Land Poor Land: A Study of Waste in the Natural Resources, New York: McGraw-


Cheadle, F.B and H-O.Eateon, C.A.M. Ewing. (1934). No More Unemployed, Oklahoma University Press

* Cole, G.D.H. (ed.). (1933). What everybody wants to know about money: a planned outline of monetary

Problems , by nine economists from Oxford Colin Clark... [et al.], planned and ed. by G.D.H. Cole. -

London: Gollancz, 1933

Cole, G.D.H. (ed.). (1947). Money: its present and future, 3d ed., rev. - London [etc.], Cassell

Cole, G.D.H. (ed.). (1954). Money: trade and investment, London: Cassell, Completely rev. ed. of: Money, its

present and future (1944)

Committee on Elimination of Waste in Industry of the Federated American Engineering Societies. Waste in

Industry , New York: McGraw-Hill

Continental Committee on Technocracy. (1933). Plan of Plenty, New York: Continental Committee on


Davis,J.R. (1971). The New Economists and the Old Economists, Ames, Iowa

Director, Aron. (1933). The Economics of Technocracy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Douglas, C. H. (lifford Hugh). (1969).The development of world dominion; published for the Social Credit

Secretariat. Sydney: Tidal Publications; London: H.R.P. Publications.

Douglas, C. H. (1973). Social credit, New York: Gordon Press.

* Douglas, C. H. (1931). The Monopoly of Credit, New York: Gordon Press, reprint: 4.ed. Sudbury: Bloomfield,


* Eisler, Robert. (1932). Stable money: the remedy for the economic world crisis: a programme of financial

reconstruction for the international conference 1933 , ; with a preface by Vincent C. Vickers. - London: The

Search publishing co.

Field, A.N. (1932). The Truth about the Slump, Privately published, P.O.Box.154, Nelson, New Zealand

Finlay, John L. (1972). Social credit; the English origins, Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press

Foster, William. (1933). Technocracy and Communism, New York: Workers Library Publication

Frederick, Justus G. (1933). For and Against Technocracy, New York: Business Bourse

Gesell, Silvio. (1931, tr.1958). Silvio Gesell, The natural economic order, transl by Philip Pye, Rev. Engl. ed.,

London: Owen,1958

Grace, Alonzo G. et al. (1933). Technocracy: Fad, Fallacy or Fact? Rochester NY: University of Rochester

Extension Division

Graham, Frank D. (1932). The Abolition of Unemployment,

Graham, Frank D. (1942). Social Goals and Economic Institutions, Princeton

Haldane, J.B.S. (1928). Possible Wolds. (and otherPapers.), New York and London, Harper & Brothers Publ.

Hallgren, Mauritz. (1933). Seeds of Revolt: A Study of American Life and the Teper of the American People

During the Depression, New York: Alfred A.Knopf

Hancock, A. E. (1973). Social credit: a plan for Alberta, Lethbridge, Alta.: Insight Pub. Co.

Hardorp, Benediktus. (1958). Elemente einer Neubestimmung des Geldes und ihre Bedeutung für die

Finanzwirtschaft der Unternehmung, Dissertation Freiburg i.Br.

Harrison, John F.C. (1969). Quest for the New Moral World, New York

Hattersley, Charles Marshall. (1934). This age of plenty: its problems and their solution, 5th ed. - London [etc.]:

Pitman, (1929

Hattersley, Charles Marshall. (1969). The community's credit: a consideration of the principles and proposals of

the Social Credit Movement , Mexborough (Yorkshire): Social Credit Co-ordinating Centre

Hawkins, Williard. (1934). Castaways of Plenty: A Parable of Our Times, Denver COL: Rocky Mountain

Division of the Continental Committee on Technocracy

Henderson, Fred. (1931). Economic Consequences of Power Production, London: George Allen and Unwin

Holder, William. (1933). Simplified Technocracy, Salt Lake City: Pyramid Press

* Hollis, Christopher. (1934). The breakdown of money: an historical explanation, New cheap ed. 1937, London:

Sheed & Ward, 1.ed. 1934.

Hollis, Christopher. (1971). Can Parliament survive? Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press

Hollis, Christopher. (1973). Parliament and its sovereignty, London: Hollis and Carter

Hollis, Christopher. (1975). The two nations: a financial study of English history, New York: Gordon Press

Hoogendijk, Willem. (1995). Money, from master to servant: about the liberation of productivity and the

road towards genuine and just sustainability,, with contrib. by Hans Christoph Binswanger, most urgent

corr. Henk A. Plenter, Utrecht: PROMODECO

Hubbert, M.King. (1936). Man-Hours and Distribution, New York: Technocracy Inc.

Hutchinson, Frances and Brian Burkitt. (1997). The political economy of social credit & guild socialism

New York: Routledge

Johnson, Julia Emily. (1933). Selected Articles on Capitalism and Its Alternatives, New York: H.W.Wilson

Jones, Bassett. (1933). Debt and Production: The Operating Characteristics of Our Industrial Economy, New

York: John Day

Kennedy, Margit. (1987). Interest and Inflation Free Money, Steyerberg: Permakulturinstitut

* Kitson, Arthur. (1894). A Scientific Solution of the Money Question, Boston: Arena Publ. 1895

Kitson, Arthur. (1904). A Corner in Gold, London: P.S.King & Son

Kitson, Arthur. (1910). Usury (payment for the use of things) the prime cause of want and unemployment: an

address delivered by Mr. Arthur Kitson at the Sesame Club, London, May 2nd, 1910. - London: Frank


Kitson, Arthur. (1917). Trade fallacies: a criticism of existing methods and suggestions for a reform towards

national prosperity , Londen: King & Son

Kitson, Arthur. (1917). A fraudulent standard: an exposure of the fraudulent character of our monetary

standard, with suggestions for the establishment of an invariable unit of value , London: P.S. King & son, ltd

Kitson, Arthur. (1921). Unemployment, the Cause and a Remedy, London: Cecil Palmer

* Kitson, Arthur. (1933). The Banker's Conspiracy which started the World Crisis, 2 ed. London: Elliot Stock

Kixmiller, William. (1932). Can Business Men Produce a Great Age: An Answer to Technocracy, New York:

Commerce Clearing House

Laing, Graham A. (1933). Toward Technocracy, Los Angeles: Angelus Press

Lardner, John and Tomas Surgue. (1933). The Crowning of Technocracy, New York: R.M.McBride

Leech, Harper. (1932). Paradox of Plenty, New York: McGraw-Hill

Ligue du crâedit social de la province de Quâebec. Cahiers du crâedit social. Gardenvale, Quâebec, Ligue du

crâedit social de la province de Quâebec.

Loeb, Harold. (1933). Life in a Technocracy: What It Might Be Like, New York: Viking Press

Loeb, Harold et al. (1935). The Chart of Plenty: A Study of America’s Product Capacity, New York: Viking


Loeb, Harold. (1946). Full Production Without War, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Loeb, Harold. (1959). The Way It Was, New York: Criterion Books

Mallory, J. R. (1976, c1954). Social credit and the federal power in Canada, its background and development,

Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press

Ma rk, Jeffrey, The Modern Idolatry. An Analysis of Usury and the Pahtology of debt, Chatto and Windus, 1934

Mayers, Henry. (1932). The What, Why, Who, When, and How of Technocracy, Los Angeles: Angelus Press

Melchett, Lord. (1931). Why the Crisis, V.Gollancz

Meulen, Henry. (1909). Banking and the social problem, London: auteur

Meulen, Henry. (1917). Industrial Justice through Banking Reform, R.J.James

Monahan, Bryan W. (1967). An introduction to Social Credit, London, K.R.P. Publications; Sydney, Tidal


Montgomery, Richard. (1995). Disciplining or protecting the poor?: avoiding the social costs of peer pressure

in solidarity group micro-credit schemes, Swansea, U.K.: Centre for Development Studies, University of

Wales Swansea

Myers, Margaret G. (1940). Monetary Proposals for Social Reform, New York, reprint 1965

New York City Housing Authority. (1935). Report of the National Survey of Potential Production Capacity,

New York: New York City Housing Authority

New Zealand Social Credit Political League. (1972?). General policy, Wellington: The League.

Nichols, Herbert Edward. (1952?). A handbook of social credit, Toronto: May be obtained from the Social Credit

Association of Canada.

North, Gary. (1993). Salvation through inflation: the economics of social credit, Tyler, TX: Institute for

Christian Economics

Osborne, J.Stephen & J.T. Osborne. (1986). Social credit for beginners: an armchair guide, Vancouver,

Canada: Pulp Press Book Publishers

Parrish, Wayne. (1933). An Outline of Technocracy, New York: Farrar and Rhineart

Persky, Stan. (1989). Fantasy government: Bill Vander Zalm and the future of social credit, Vancouver: New

Star Books

Porter, Henry A. (1932). Roosevelt and Technocracy, New York: Farrar and Rhineart

Pound, Ezra. (1935). Social credit: an impact, London: S. Nott (1885-1972)

President’s Research Committee on Social Trends. Recent Social Trends in the United States, New York:


* Rautenstrauch, Walter. (1934). Who Gets the Money?: A Study in the Economics of Scarcity and Plenty, New

York: Harper and Brothers

Rautenstrauch, Walter. (1939). The Economics of Business Enterprise, New York: John Wiley & Sons

Rautenstrauch, Walter. (1940). Industrial Surveys and Reports, New York: John Wiley & Sons

Raymond, Allen, (1933). What is Technocracy?, New York [etc.]: Whittlesey House of McGraw-Hill

Reeve, J.E. (1943). Monetary Reform Movements. A Survey of Recent Plans and Panaceas, Washington D.C.

Rose, William. C. (1968). Social credit handbook, Toronto, Montreal: McClelland and Stewart.

Rugg, Harold. (1933). The Great Technology: Social Chaos and the Public Mind, New York: John Day

* Scott, Howard and others. (1933). Introduction to Technocracy, with an introductory statement by the

Continental Committee on Technocracy and a selected reading list for laymen from the literature of science.

New York: John Day; London: John Lane the Bodley Head

Scott, Howard. (1933). Science versus Chaos, New York: Technocracy Inc.

Slocomb, Whitney. (1932). How to Put Technocracy Into Practice, Los Angeles: n.p.

Smalley, Jack. (1933). The Technocrats’ Magazine, Minneapolis: Graphic Arts Corp.

Smyth, William H. (1932). Technocracy: Four Pamphlets, Berkeley: Fernwald Press

Smyth, William H. (1933). Coming Events Cast Their Shadows Before, Berkeley: privately printed

Smyth, William H. (1933). Technocracy Explained By Its Originator, Berkeley: privately printed

Social Credit Secretariat. Social credit, [microform], London, Social Credit Secretariat

Social Credit Association of Canada. (1964). Social credit explained. Ottawa?: Social Credit Association of


Social Credit Co-ordinating Centre. (1969). Fifty years of social credit, 1919-1969: C.H. Douglas. Mexborough

(Yorkshire): Social Credit Co-ordinating Centre.

* Soddy, Frederick. (1926). Wealth, virtual wealth, and debt: The solution of the economic paradox, New York:

Gordon Press, 08-81. – 320 p., ?cm. – (Studies in money and currency reform) Reprint. Originally published:

London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1926. – Includes indexes. ISBN 0-8490-3221-0

* Soddy, Frederick. (1931). Money versus Man, Elkin Matthews and Marrot

* Soddy, Frederick. (1934). The role of Money. What it should be, contrasted with what it has become, London:


Soddy, Frederick. (1950). Money reform as a preliminary to all reform: an address by Frederick Soddy, read

Before the Birmingham Paint, Varnish & Lacquer Club on the occasion of the 21st anniversary of the

founding of the club, Jan. 12th

Stein, Michael B. (1973). The dynamics of right-wing protest: a political analysis of Social Credit in Quebec,

Toronto, Buffalo: University of Toronto Press

* Steiner, Rudolf. (1921). World Economics, Rudolf Steiner Press, London 1977 (1936/1937, 1949, 1972)

(translated from the German original published under the title: Nationalökonomischer Kurs.)

Technocracy, Inc. (1933-36). Technocracy Study Course, New York: Technocracy, Inc.

Technocracy, Inc. (1934). Technocracy: Some Questions Answered, New York: Technocracy, Inc.

Thomas, Lewis H. (ed.). (1977). William Aberhart and Social Credit in Alberta, Toronto: Copp Clark Pub.,

Veblen, Thorstein Bunde. (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class, New York: Macmillan

Veblen, Thorstein Bunde. (1921). The Engineers and the Price System, New York: B.W.Huebsch, Reprinted

Viking Press

Veblen, Thorstein Bunde. (1920). The Vested Interest and the Common Man, New York: B.W.Huebsch

Willyams, A. E. (1953). Social credit is for me,Christchurch, N.Z.: Pegasus Press

Wilson, R. McNair. (1933). Understanding Technocracy, San Diego CAL: New Era Publications

Wilson, R. McNair. (1956). Müssen Banknoten durch Gold gedeckt sein?: Übersetzung des in englischer

Sprache erschienen Buches "Promise to pay" /. - Zürich: Verlag Organisator

Whitaker, T.K. (1947). Financing by credit creation, with an introd. by Ch. Hollis, Dublin

Young, Walter D. (1969). Democracy and discontent; progressivism, socialism and social credit in the

Canadian west, Toronto: Ryerson Press

Young, Walter D. (1978). Democracy and discontent: progressivism, socialism and social credit in the

Canadian west, Toronto; New York: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

Magazines and periodicles:

The Canadian social crediter [microform]. Edmonton, Social Credit Association of Canada

Focus, [microform], Ottawa [etc.], Social Credit Association of Canada.

BC on the move: Social Credit news & views , Vancouver: On the Move Publications, (1987-1988?)

British Columbia Social Credit Party. (1988-) Party-link, Richmond, B.C.: BCSC Publications

Alberta social credit chronicle [microform]. (19..). Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Commonwealth

Microfilm Products

Regards, (19..). (Arthabaska, Quebec). Regards [microform], Montrâeal: Sociâetâe canadienne du microfilm

Huronia News Services. (1977). Messenger, Wasaga Beach, Ont.: Huronia News Services

The Social Credit Messenger . Wasaga Beach, Ont.: Grey-Simcoe (federal) Riding Association, 1976-1977


(Mainly on Gesell and Steiner)

Belte, Theodor. (1974). Die menschenwürdige Gesellschaft, Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann.

Binswanger, Hans Christoph. (1985). Geld und Magie: Deutung u. Kritik d. modernen Wirtschaft anhand von

Goethes Faust, Mit e. Nachw. von Iring Fetscher, Stuttgart: Edition Weitbrecht ISBN 3-522-70140-2

Canal, Georg Freiherr von. (1992). Geisteswissenschaft und Ökonomie, Schaffhausen CH: Novalis Verlag

Creutz, Helmut. (1994). Das Geldsyndrom - Wege zu einer krisenfreien Marktwirtschaft, Frankfurt/M. und

Berlin: Ullstein Verlag

Gesell, Silvio. (1897). Die Anpassung des Geldes und seiner Verwaltung an die Bedürfnisse des modernen

Verkehrs , Buenos-Aires

Gesell, Silvio. (1898). La razon economica del desacuerdo chileno-argentino, Buenos Aires: "La Buenos Aires"

Gesell, Silvio. (1906). Die Verwirklichung des Rechtes auf den vollen Arbeitsertrag durch die Geld- und

Bodenreform , (Zugleich eine Erledigung der Interessen-Politik und der Volkswirtschafts-Wissenschaft).


Gesell, Silvio. (1911). Die neue Lehre vom Geld und Zins: eine Zusammenfassung, Läuterung und

Vervollständigung früherer Schriften des Verfassers, Berlin-Grosslichterfelde: Physiokratischer Verlag

(Georg Blumenthal); Leipzig: Hermann

Gesell, Silvio. (1911). Die Reformation in Münzwesen als Brücke zum Sozilalen Staat,

* Gesell, Silvio. (1916). Die natürliche Wirtschaftsordnung durch Freiland und Freigeld, Bern, 7. Aufl. –

Hochheim: Stirn, 1931

Gesell, Silvio. (1920). Das Reichswährungsamt, Rehbrücke bei Postdam

Gesell, Silvio. (1920). Internationale Valuta-Assoziation, Sontra

Gesell, Silvio. (1922). Denkschrift an die deutschen Gewerkschaften, Potsdam

Gesell, Silvio. Edited by H. Sveistrup (1931). Die Freiwirtschaftslehre als Wissenschaft, Weisung und Technik:

Rede, gehalten zum Gedächtnis an Silvio Gesell am 11. März 1931 im Lessing-Museum zu Berlin, Lauf

bei Nürnberg [etc.]: Zitzmann

Gesell, Silvio. (1960). Silvio Gesell: Zeitgenössische Stimmen zum Werk und Lebensbild eines Pioniers,

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Gesell, Silvio. (1988). Gesammelte Werke in 18 Bänden, Lütjenburg: Gauke-Verlag, 1988 – ca. 1997

* Hegge, Hjalmar. (1988). Freiheit, Induvidualität und Gesellschaft, Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben, 1992,

translated from the original in Norwegian: Frihet, individualitet og samfunn.

Herrmanstorfer, Udo. (1992). Scheinmarktschaft. Die Unverkäuflichkeit von Arbeit, Boden und Kapital, Praxis

Anthroposophie 6, Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben

Kennedy, Margit. (1987). Geld ohne Zinsen und Inflation, Steyerberg: Permakulturinstitut

Kennedy, Margrit. (1991). Geld ohne Zinsen und Inflation – Ein Tauschmittel, das jedem dient, München:

Goldmann Verlag

Leverkus, Erich. (1990). Freier Tausch und fauler Zauber: vom Geld und seiner Geschichte, mit Zeichn. Von

Wolfgang Scholz und einem Geleitw. Von Helmut Schmidt. – Frankfurt am Main: Knapp ISBN 3-7819-0470-9 Schärrer, Markus. (1983). Geld- und Bodenreform als Bruecke zum sozialen Staat: die Geschichte der

Freiwirtschaftsbewegung in der Schweiz (1915-1952), Dissertation Zürich.

Scharmer, Claus Otto. (1991). Ästhetik als Kategorie strategischer Führung. Der ästhetische Typus von

wirtschaftlichen Organisationen. Die künstlerische Perspektive als Ausgangspunkt der ökonomische Theorie.

Auf der Suche nach der geegenwartfähigen Universität, Stuttgart: Ursachhaus

Schönmann, Ernst. (1952). Karl Marx / Das Kapital: die wirtschaftlichen Lehren von Karl Marx aufs Neue

dargeboten und einer Auswahl kritischer Stimmen von Thomas G. Masaryk, Karl Kautsky und Silvio Gesell,

Affoltern am Albis: Ähren Verlag Schweppenhäuser, Hans Georg. (1969). Arbeit, Lohn und Preis in ihrem Zusammenhang, Dornach CH: Verlag

am Goetheanum

Schweppenhäuser, Hans Georg. (1971). Das Kranke Geld. Vorschläge für eine soziale Geldordnung von

Morgen , Stuttgart: Radius Verlag, reprint: Frankfurt a.M.: Fischer taschenbuch Verlag, 1982

Senf, Bernd. (1996). Der Nebel um das Geld, Lütjenburg: Gauke Verlag

Smundt, Wilhelm. (1968). Der soziale Organismus in Seiner Freiheitsgestalt, Dornach CH: Philosophisch-

Antroposophischer Verlag,

Smundt, Wilhelm. (1973). Revolution und Evolution, Achberg bei Lindau: Verlag edition dritter Weg

Steiner, Rudolf. (1905-06). Geisteswissenschaft und soziale Frage (Org.:Theosophie und soziale Frage), Dorach

CH:, 1957

Steiner, Rudolf. (1920). Die Kernpunkte der soziale Frage in den Lebensnotwendigkeiten der Gegenwart und


* Steiner, Rudolf. (1921). Nationalökonomischer Kurs,

Suhr, Dieter. (1975). Bewusstseinsverfassung und Gesellschaftsverfassung: über Hegel und Marx zu einer

dialektischen Verfassungstheorie, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot (Schriften zur Rechtstheorie, ISSN 0582-

0472, H. 41) Habilitationsschrift--Freie Universität, Berlin ISBN 3-428-03335-3

Suhr, Dieter und Hugo Godschalk. (1986). Optimale Liquidität: eine liquiditätstheoretische Analyse und ein

kreditwirtschaftliches Wettbewerbskonzept, Frankfurt am Main: Knapp ISBN 3-7819-0349-4

Suhr, Dieter. (1988). Alternes Geld. Das Konzept Rudolf Steiners aus geldtheoretischer Sicht, Schaffhausen CH:

Novalis Verlag

Werner, Hans-Joachim. (1990). Geschichte der Freiwirtschaftsbewegung - 100 Jahre Kampf für eine

Marktwirtschaft ohne Kapitalismus , Münster und New York: Waxmann-Verlag

Wilken, Folkert. (1976). Das Kapital und die Zukunft. Sein Wesen seine Geschichte und sein Wirken im

20.Jahrhundert, Schaffhausen CH: Novalis Verlag

* Wilken, Folkert. (1981). Das Kapital und das Geld. Die Wirtschaft als Geldorganismus. Schaffhausen CH:

Novalis Verlag

Wilken, Folkert. (1981). Das Kapital und die Zukunft. Die assoziative Bedarfsdeckungswirtschaft, Schaffhausen

CH: Novalis Verlag

Witzenmann, Herbert. (1995). Geldordnung als Bewusstseinsfrage, Krefeld: Gideon Spicker Verlag




DER DRITTE WEG - Zeitschrift für die natürliche Wirtschaftsordnung, Erftstr. 57, 45219 Essen

Zeitschrift für Sozialökonomie, Gauke Verlag, Postfach 1320, 24319 Lütjenburg

Die natürliche Wirtschaftsordnung im World Wide Web / NWO im WWW


* Bjørset, Brynjolf. (1934). Efter oss kommer overfloden: kan den utnyttes og fordeles rasjonelt?: aktuelle forslag

og forsøk: en oversikt og en sammenligning, Oslo: H.Aschehoug & Co.

* Bjørset, Brynjolf & Hans J. Utne, Henrik Palmstrøm. (1937). Fra kriser til kredittkontroll, Oslo: Tanum

Bjørset, Brynjolf. (1934). Distribute or Destroy, London, 1936, reprint 1939, translation of the Norwegian

original: Efter oss kommer overfloden, Oslo 1934

Bonde, G.E. (1934). Den nye tids økonomi. Totalitetsøkonomien, 2nd ed., Bergen

Bonde, G.E. (1966). Totalitetsøkonomi. En populær fremstilling av Samfundslivets nye evangelium, B.Dybvad

Brochmann’s livssyn og samfundslære , Bergen: Bondes forlag

Brochmann, Bertram Dybvad. (1923). Nøklene. Veien til det nye land: (Aandsrev), Bergen: eget forlag (private


Brochmann, Bertram Dybvad. (1956). Realøkonomi kontra fiktivøkonomi. Sparing i overflodens tidsalder.

Hvorfor Norge spiller fallitt , Bergen

Brochmann, B.Dybvad. (1934). Fandens efterlatte Papirer, Bergen: Det frie samfunds forlag, reprint: Oslo:

Gyldendal, 1977

Brochmann, B.Dybvad. (1922). Eksakt vurdering og Verdilære, Bergen: eget forlag (private printing, 1959)

Colbiørnsen, Ole and Axel Sømme. (1933). En norsk 3-aarsplan, Oslo

Eivindson, Solveig. (1983). Fra fiktivøkonomi til realøkonomi, in: Anders Ryste m.fl.: Fredens

sosiologi, Ørsta: Bonde-Lanser forlag

Førre, Ingvald. (1939). Det nye pengesystem, Oslo, 1939

* Hegge, Hjalmar. (1988). Frihet, individualitet og samfunn. En moralfilosofisk, erkjennelsesteoretisk og

sosialfilosofisk studie i menneskelig eksistens, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget

Holbæk-Hanssen, Leif. (1984). Et samfunn for menneskelig utvikling. Bidrag til tenkingen om alternativ framtid,

Oslo: Tanum-Norli

Holbæk-Hanssen, Leif. (1976). Metoder og modeller i markedsføringen, I-III, part III: Planlegging,

budsjettering og styringssystemer, chapter 4: Det selvstyrte samfunn som fremtidsbilde, Oslo: Tanum-Norli

Kennedy, Margit. (1987). Det nye pengesystemet. Veiviser til en økonomi uten renter og inflasjon, Oslo:

Cappelen, 1991, translated from the original in German, Geld ohne Zinsen und Inflation,

Lange, Sven. (1941). Teknokratiet: en kortfattet orientering, [Bergen]: [S. Lange], 1941. Utredning - Norges

handelshøyskole, høsten 1941

Millar, Robert and Hj. Murstad. (1933). Økonomisk frigjørelse: en oversikt over Douglas-planen for social

kreditt og velstand for alle , Robert Millar, Oslo: Johan Grundt Tanum

Pfeiffer, Eduard. (1933). Boken om teknokratiet, bearbeidet for utgivelse på norsk ved Ernst Zychner, forord av

Øyvind Lange. Oslo: Nasjonalforl.

Steiner, Rudolf. (1905-06). Åndsvitenskapen og det sociale spørsmål, Copenhagen, 1978

Steiner, Rudolf. (1919-20). Kjernepunktene i det sosiale spørsmål. Livsnødvendigheter I nåtid og fremtid, fritt

selvforvaltende åndsliv, demokratisk rettsystem, assosiativt selvstyrende næringsliv, Bergen: Forlaget de tre

funksjoner, c/o Paul Jebsen, 1969

Steiner, Rudolf. (1919-20). De tre funksjoner og systemer i den Sosiale Organisme og deres Livsbetingelser.

Hvorfor -et fritt selvforvaltende åndsliv, -et demokratisk rettsystem, -et assosiativt selvstyrende næringsliv

kan gi Grunnlaget for Sunne Forhold I det Sosiale Liv Bergen: Forlaget de tre funksjoner, c/o Paul Jebsen,

1968, translated from articles in the magazine Dreigliederung des sozialen Organismus

Steiner, Rudolf. (1922). Samfundsøkonomi, Oslo: Private printing, translated from the original in German:

National-ökonomischer Kurs,

Stenberg, Sig. (1933). Teknokratin och krisen: en orientering i ett aktuellt problem, Stockholm: Federativ NBR

Sømme, L. J. (1933). Det gamle negative pengesystem, Oslo

Sømme, L. J. (1942). Det positive pengesystem, Oslo

Sømme, L. J. (1942). Verdenskapitalismen og vi, Oslo

Sømme, L. J. (1944). Fra åger til samarbeide, Oslo

Sømme, L. J. (1948). Krisenes oppklaring: tidens finanspolitikk er håpløs, men det er en vei ut av krisen,

[Stavanger?]: [L. J. Sømme]

Utne, Hans. (1929) Et nyt skattesystem, Bergen

Winter-Hjelm, Thorolf. (1920). Pengenes socialisering og kapitalrentens avskaffelse, Kristiania: Det Norske arbeiderpartis forlag

* Winter-Hjelm, Thorolf. (1930). Kapitalrente og ågerrente, Oslo



(to be found at:

or with Technocrats home page:

"Essentially Technocracy is a soundly scientific effort to restate economics on a purely physical basis" H.G. Wells
Master Article Index (sorted by author)

Title Author Date  
Why Technocracy?   1955  
Education --the Way It Should Be   1996  
In Fond Memory: Stella K. Block 1910—1996   1997  
Technocracy Plays North America To Win!   1992  
Price System Bind Continues   1991  
When Is There Over-Population?   January 1959  
So, What's Hard To Understand?   1996  
The Good Old Days! -- May we never see them again!   1996  
Technocracy's Approach   1936-9?  
A Statement of the Social Objectives of Technocracy   1933  
A Scientist Gives Information On The Production Of Good Soil For Food   1996  
Explaining The Price System      
Explaining Initiative And Incentive   1996  
Dwindling Waters, 1996   1996  
Editorial: Frightening Future?   1996  
Young People: Traps You Might Like To Avoid   1968  
Wake-Up Call   1996  
Apathy Has Brought Us To The Brink   1996  
Poverty is a Terrible Thing   1996  
More on Kenaf ? 1996  
Ah! Sweet Mystery of Money ? ?  
The Technologist Looks at Social Phenomena Frederick Ackerman? 1933  
A Kettle Of People John Berge 1990  
Infrastructure in the Price System: Seattle catastrophe on Lake Washington John Berge 1991  
Man's Future John Berge 1991  
News From NASA John Berge 1990  
Adversarial Relations John Berge 1992  
Technocracy's Road Ahead John Berge 1995  
Book Review: Powershift by Alvin Tofler John Berge 1991  
Consensus For Change John Berge 1990  
The Desolation Of Earth John Berge 1989  
More Threat To The Ozone Shield John Berge 1992  
Disguised Reality John Berge 1990  
Technocracy Is Unique John Berge 1994  
AIR John Berge 1989  
Unity John Berge 1992  
Lessons from the Past John Berge 1996  
Cities as Projected by Technocracy John Berge 1992  
Who's On Welfare? Jack Bergel 1984  
The Search for an Answer Jack Bergel 1992  
Illusions Jack Bergel 1991  
Response to ``Potential Tiananmen Squares Abound in America'' by Norman Cousins Jack Bergel 1990  
System at Fault Jack Bergel 1991  
Social Diversions And Other Futilities Jack Bergel 1990  
Ford Empire Played Both Sides In War Victor H. Bernstein 1945  
What Family Values? Stella Block 1994  
Despair Blamed On Social System Stella Block 1990  
To Your Health... Stella Block 1989  
Wired For Change Stella Block 1996  
Women! Stella Block 1980  
The Mud Of The Last Ditch Stella Block 1996  
The Travesty of ``Globalization'' Stella K. Block 1996  
Bread and Circuses (Panem et Circenses) Burton W. Bogardus 1994  
No Politicians Need Apply Ted Broderick 1996  
War is Still a Racket Major General Smedley Butler ?  
The Mystery of Money G. D. KOE, CHQ 1938?  
A Preview of Chaos Kenneth Clements 1992  
HELP! I've Been Downsized! What Do I Do Now? Ken Clements, M.A.L., Colorado 1996  
Lock `em Up and Throw Away the Key Clarence Darrow 1902  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1990  
Let's Talk About Solutions John Darvill 1990  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1996  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1991  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1995  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1992  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1992  
The Crisis Before Us John Darvill 1996  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1996  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1991  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1990  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1991  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1989  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1994  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1990  
Do You Know? John Darvill 1990  
Do You Know? John C. Darvill 1997  
Do You Know? John C. Darvill 1992  
Do You Know? John C. Darvill 1992  
Science -- Our Lifeline John C. Darvill 1996  
Educating For Our Changing World Jeannette DeLeon 1963  
New Way Of Life Jim Deacove 1995  
Management and the Uncertainty Principal Robert Devine 1994  
Got burned on the O.J. Trial Stephen Doll 1996  
Accounting For Nature: Moving Toward Resource-Based Economics Stephen L. Doll 1994  
``They Live'' -- B-Grade... Or Beware? Stephen L. Doll 1990  
It Really Doesn't Grow On Trees Stephen L. Doll 1997  
Profit In Problems Stephen L. Doll 1992  
Reflections On A "Forgotten Folly" Stephen L. Doll 1990  
A Letter to a Socialist from a Technocrat Stephen L. Doll 1994  
A Tale Of Two Monsters Stephen L. Doll 1989  
Of Death, Taxes, and the Price System Stephen L. Doll 1990  
Newt's Hero Stephen L. Doll 1995  
The Omen: The Corporate Squeeze Tightens Stephen L. Doll 1995  
The Plight of the Price System Lemmings Stephen L. Doll 1991  
Technocracy -- An Idea For Now Stephen L. Doll 1992  
No Peace in a Price System Stephen L. Doll 1992  
The Price System vs. The Environment: A Message To Environmental Groups Stephen L. Doll 1990  
Can Technology Destroy Us? Stephen L. Doll 1990  
Isn't It A Shame? Orton Downer 1997?  
What Is The Problem? W.E. Dyke 1997  
A Non-Fiction Daily Drama -- A Day in the Life of a Teacher Pam Edwards 1996  
Letter – Legacy Maxwell Eve 1995  
It's The "STUPID" Economy Jim Feeney 1994  
The Energy Certificate Harold Fezer 1938  
North America Needs New Philosophy Charles Floyd 1991  
Letter – Education Pam Gill 1996  
Violence, Violence, Violence Pam Gill 1994  
A Vanishing Species -- And We're Talking About People! Pamela Gill 1996  
Hubbert's Prescription for Survival, A Steady State Economy Robert L. Hickerson March 1, 1995  
The ``Spirit of the Constitution'' M. King Hubbert 1936  
Man-Hours and Distribution M. King Hubbert 1940  
Some Facts of Life M. King Hubbert 1937  
Determining the Most Probable M. King Hubbert 1938  
Where Are The Technocrats of Yesteryear? M. King Hubbert 1935  
Man and the Nature of Things Wilton Ivie 1954  
The Ecology of Man Wilton Ivie 1948  
Road to Ruin Wilton Ivie 1949  
Who Is A Technocrat? Wilton Ivie 1953  
Full Employment Wilton Ivie ?  
Today's Dilemma T. Melvin Johnson 1992  
Human Immunity Endangered By Pesticides C. Kadin 1997  
Hidden Unemployed C. Kadin 1991  
Science and Technology, the Real Engines of Social Progress R.E. Landridge 1996  
The Face Of Civility R.E. Landridge 1996  
Hunger In An Affluent Society Ron Landridge 1996  
I Am The Price System R. B. Langan 1944  
Science should be applied to Canadian Social System Cyril Large 1995  
A Proper Stewardship Keith MacLeod 1990  
Prescription for Survival Keith MacLeod 1992  
Minority Causes Helen Marian 1991  
Technocracy Has The `Good Seed' Alma Mawson 1996  
First Things First Alma Mawson 1995  
The Weakening Link Alma V. Mawson 1996  
What Is Our Problem? Charlatans and Fools are Shaping Our Destiny Reo McCaslin 1982  
Price System Death Spiral Ron Miller 1994  
Mass Extinction Ron Miller 1989  
Powering Up North America/The D.C. Power Option Ron Miller 1992  
Evolution's Hammer Ron Miller 1994  
Power Puzzle Ron Miller 1985  
Letter to the Editor of Mother Jones, April 13, 1994 Ron Miller 1994  
A Question of Humanity Ron Miller 1992  
The Anti-Social Society Ron Miller 1988  
The Need For Complete Social Change Ron Miller 1995  
Crime Does Pay Ron Miller 1991?  
Greed Ron Miller 1984  
Money! Money? money... Ron Miller 1984  
Why Is There Poverty in the Land of Plenty? Ron Miller 1984  
Even If We Are All On Welfare, Will The Budget Be Balanced By 2002? L. W. Nicholson 1996  
Technocracy, An Entirely New Social Design L. W. Nicholson 1996  
Needed -- A Mental Revolution L. W. Nicholson 1996  
Save Your Loyalty For The Deserving L. W. Nicholson 1996  
Politics Is Irrelevant L.W. Nicholson 1991  
Where Is The Best? L.W. Nicholson 1990  
Society's Blind Alleys L.W. Nicholson 1990  
Human Progress -- To Where? L.W. Nicholson 1991  
New Methods Required L.W. Nicholson 1991  
Education is a Process L.W. Nicholson 1991  
Debt L.W. Nicholson 1992  
Technocracy -- An Entirely New Social Design L.W. Nicholson 1996  
Why There are Financial Difficulties in a Technological Age -- And What Can Be Done To Correct Them L.W. Nicholson 1996  
That Famous North American Ingenuity, Where is it now? L.W. Nicholson 1992  
Education Versus Chaos L.W. Nicholson 1990  
Why The Debt? L.W. Nicholson 1990  
The United States is Bankrupt L.W. Nicholson 1992  
Which Myth Can You Believe? L.W. Nicholson 1996  
How To Get There From Here L.W. Nicholson 1996  
Human Progression? Or Chaos L.W. Nicholson 1996  
Traditional Methods Have Become Antiquated L.W. Nicholson 1994  
Why Not Measurement In Place Of Money? W.H. ORSER 1996  
At the Mercy of Debt Merchants Melford Pearson 1969  
Who Owns And Votes The Shares Melford Pearson 1996  
Is Economic Recovery Possible? Sam Rachele 1992  
Our Social and Economic Dilemma Sam Rachele 1996  
Economic Factors Make Crisis Inevitable Sam Rachele 1995  
Technocracy Is Best Vehicle For Our Future Lorraine Rhode 1990  
The Technical Alliance Profiles John Waring with Lois M. Scheel 1991  
Some Facts Of Life -- M. King Hubbert John Waring with Lois M. Scheel 1991  
Facing Facts in the War on Drugs Lois M. Scheel 1996  
Meanderings Into Obfuscation Lois M. Scheel 1990  
Crib Death Lois M. Scheel 1996  
Side Effects Lois M. Scheel 1996  
America's Scandalous Prison Record Lois M. Scheel 1996  
Wartime Economy Lois M. Scheel 1985  
House Of Tomorrow Lois M. Scheel 1986  
Book Review: Ecotopia (by Ernest Callenbach) Lois M. Scheel 1989  
Welfare As Most People Don't Know It Lois M. Scheel 1996  
Book Review: Four Arguments For The Elimination Of Television By Jerry Mander Lois M. Scheel 1993  
We Teach Them To Kill Lois M. Scheel 1995  
The Power of Custom Lois M. Scheel 1995  
Just Imagine... Lois M. Scheel 1994  
The Logs Keep Rolling Along Lois M. Scheel 1995  
It Has Its Humor Lois M. Scheel 1994  
No Democracy Here (Or Anywhere Else Either) Lois M. Scheel 1990  
Spotted Owl Fever (A Political Disease) Lois M. Scheel 1990  
Solutions To Traffic Tangle Gridlocked Lois M. Scheel 1990  
The Art of Unlearning Lois M. Scheel 1995  
World Already Beyond Its Carrying Capacity Lois M. Scheel 1994  
Clinging To The Best Of All Possible Worlds Lois M. Scheel 1989  
Money Trouble Lois M. Scheel 1995  
Killing Softly Lois M. Scheel 1994  
The Scourge Of Politics In The Land Of Manna Howard Scott 1920  
Political Schemes In Industry Howard Scott 1920  
The Hotel Pierre Address Howard Scott 1933  
Technology Smashes The Price System Howard Scott 1933  
History and Purpose of Technocracy Howard Scott 1965  
Continentalism: Now, More Than Ever, The Mandate Of Survival Howard Scott 1947  
Thermodynamic Interpretation of Social Phenomena Howard Scott 1933  
Back-Door Einstein Jim Shahin 1991  
A Technological Social System Celeste and Howard Smith 1991  
See North America -- Before It's Too Late Helen Spitler 1996  
Nature Out of Control A. W. Steen 1940  
Crimes Against Humanity John Taube 1996  
A Scary Future: Technocracy Takes The Fear Out Of The Future John A. Taube 1996  
America and the Psychozoic Era Wilhelm A. Tietz 1995  
Impoverished Man in a World of Science Wilhelm A. Tietz 1995  
America's Political and Economic Delusions Wilhelm A. Tietz 1990  
Creation Unknown ?  
Real Patriotism Rupert N. Urquhart ?  
The Peril of Panic Rupert N. Urquhart 1961?  
Book Review: Who Will Tell The People? by William Greider Lila Wagner 1992  
North American Mineral Resources John Waring 1992  
Politics In Technological North America John Waring 1992  
The Social Design Of Science -- In Concert With The Cultural Arts John Waring 1995  
Natural Resources And The North American Standard Of Living John Waring 1989  
Technocracy and Humanism John A. Waring 1985  
Trendevents: Designed For Disaster Clyde Wilson 1994  
Trendevents: Multinationals Not Welcome in India Clyde Wilson 1996  
Trendevents: Racing to Extinction Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents: For Sale! The Health of the Nation Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents: Consumer Installment Debt at All-Time High Clyde Wilson 1996  
Trendevents: Why Not Put Institutions and the Economic System on Trial? Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents -- The Sacred Cow: Corporate Welfare Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents -- America: The Bastion of Inequality and Plutocracy Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents: Poverty in the Land of Plenty Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents: Countdown to Extinction Clyde Wilson 1996  
Trendevents: Multiple Jobholders Can't Make Ends Meet Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents: The Race Toward Global Atrophy Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents: U.S. Poor Should Flee Shores To Get Federal Aid Clyde Wilson 1994  
Trendevents: No Longer Any Guarantees Clyde Wilson 1995  
Trendevents: Job Summit Plummets Clyde Wilson 1994  
Book Review: The Stork And The Plow Les Woodfin 1996  
Technocracy Offers Best Hope for our Civilization George Wright 1996  
Letter To An Editor George Wright 1996  
Workers must learn best way to benefit from technology George Wright 1995  
Clouds on the Silver Lining George Wright 1997  
Five Minutes To Midnight... unknown 1946  

generated by indexer on Mon Aug 18 23:55:50 1997